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Tunisian English Language Teachers' Perceptions and Practices: Washback of the English Baccalaureate Exam

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DOI: 10.23977/langta.2022.050103 | Downloads: 68 | Views: 1894


Hanen Dammak 1, Ali Khatibi 2, S. M. Ferdous Azam 2


1 Post Graduate Centre, Management and Science University, University Drive, Off Persiaran Olahraga, Section 13, 40100, Shah Alam, Selangor, Malaysia
2 Management and Science University, University Drive, Off Persiaran Olahraga, Section 13, 40100, Shah Alam, Selangor, Malaysia

Corresponding Author

Hanen Dammak


The present paper examines the washback effect of teachers’ perceptions about the High-Stakes National English Baccalaureate Exam (AE) and their beliefs about what constitutes effective teaching methodology (BETM). A sequential quantitative-qualitative methodology was used. A questionnaire was administered to 450 English language of 4th form of secondary school. 4 teachers volunteered for a follow-up study to get an in-depth understanding of what is happening in the classroom and to cross-check the findings obtained from quantitative analysis. To analyse the data, SPSS version 23 was used. Linear regression models were calculated to examine the relationships between teachers’ attitudes and beliefs and their teaching practices. The results revealed that other variables, apart from the EBE, lead to teaching practices that go against teachers' beliefs about what constitutes effective teaching. The paper concludes with some practical implications to bring about some changes in the classroom. Hence, bringing changes in the teachers’ beliefs and attitudes would subsequently bring changes in the classroom.


Washback, attitude, Tunisia, high-stakes EBE, effective teaching practices


Hanen Dammak,  Ali Khatibi, S. M. Ferdous Azam, Tunisian English Language Teachers' Perceptions and Practices: Washback of the English Baccalaureate Exam. Journal of Language Testing & Assessment (2022) Vol. 5: 22-43. DOI:


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