Education, Science, Technology, Innovation and Life
Open Access
Sign In

Social Media Framing of Athletes by Media Networks and the Public during the 2022 Winter Olympics

Download as PDF

DOI: 10.23977/mediacr.2023.040208 | Downloads: 18 | Views: 466


Lanfu Liu 1, Hashem Walid Maher Ahmed 1


1 Northwestern University in Qatar, Ar-Rayyan, Qatar

Corresponding Author

Lanfu Liu


This research proposal aims to investigate the factors influencing the perception of Olympic athletes, with a specific focus on Beverly Zhu and Eileen Gu during the 2022 Winter Olympics. The study will explore how media networks frame the images and crises of these athletes on social media, as well as the impact of this framing on the general public's perceptions. By conducting a content analysis of social media posts from both sports media networks and the public, the study aims to identify patterns and correlations between media coverage and public responses. The analysis will examine the tone, content, and framing tactics used in the posts to understand how athlete images are constructed and perceived. The findings of this study will contribute to the fields of sports media and society by shedding light on the current-day influences of sports media companies on public perceptions and the framing tactics employed to shape these perceptions.


Winter Olympics, athlete image, framing, social media, media networks, general public, perception, crisis management, content analysis, sports media


Lanfu Liu, Hashem Walid Maher Ahmed, Social Media Framing of Athletes by Media Networks and the Public during the 2022 Winter Olympics. Media and Communication Research (2023) Vol. 4: 42-48. DOI:


[1] Schnitzer M., & Haizinger L. Does the Olympic Agenda 2020 have the power to create a new Olympic heritage? [J]. An analysis for the 2026 Winter Olympic Games bid. Sustainability, 2019, 11(2), 442. 
[2] Tang T., & Cooper R. The most social games: Predictors of social media uses during the 2016 Rio Olympics [J]. Communication and Sport, 2018, 6(3), 308-330.  
[3] Anderson N. US-born Chinese figure skater Zhu Yi falls again and breaks down in tears. Daily Mail Online [Z], 2022. html
[4] McNicol A. Who is Zhu Yi, the figure skater whose Winter Olympics Dream became a nightmare? South China Morning Post [Z]. 2022.
[5] Gan N. China's Eileen GU wins gold in Freeski halfpipe to make olympic history [M], 2022. 2022/02/18/sport/eileen-gu-halfpipe-gold-olympics-intl-hnk-spt/index.html  
[6] Ni V. How citizenship row clouded Eileen Gu's Olympics. The Guardian [Z], 2022. https://www.theguardian. com/world/2022/feb/18/how-citizenship-row-clouded-eileen-gus-olympics-chinese-american-skier
[7] Lewis N., & Weaver A. J. More Than a Game: Sports Media Framing Effects on Attitudes, Intentions, and Enjoyment [J]. Communication & Sport, 2015, 3(2), 219–242. 
[8] Oh T., Kim S., Love A., & Seo W. J. Media Framing of the Unified Korean Olympic Women's Ice Hockey Team[J]. Communication & Sport, 2021, 9(6), 888–910.  
[9] Romney M., & Johnson R. G. The ball game is for the boys: The visual framing of female athletes on national sports networks' Instagram accounts [J]. Communication and Sport, 2020, 8(6), 738–756.
[10] Arai A., Ko Y. J., & Ross S. Branding athletes: Exploration and conceptualization of athlete brand image [J]. Sport Management Review, 2014, 17(2), 97-106.
[11] Parmentier M. A., & Fischer E. How athletes build their brands [J]. International Journal of Sport Management and Marketing, 2012, 11(1-2), 106-124. 
[12] Linsner A., Sotiriadou P., Hill B., & Hallmann K. Athlete brand identity, image, and congruence: A systematic literature review [J]. International Journal of Sport Management and Marketing, 2021, 21(1-2), 103-133. 
[13] Rein I., Kotler P., & Shields B. The elusive fan: Reinventing sports in a crowded marketplace [M], McGraw-Hill. 2006. 
[14] Chen R., Rochon M. A., & Anderson L. C. "That is Terrible News!" Media Framing of Mamba Mentality within Contemporary U.S. Racial and Gender Politics [J]. Communication & Sport, 2022, 10(4), 616–641.
[15] Pauchant T. C., & Douville R. Recent research in crisis management: A study of 24 authors' publications from 1986 to 1991[J]. Industrial & Environmental Crisis Quarterly, 1993, 7(1), 43-66.
[16] Coombs W. T. Crisis management and communications [J]. Institute for public relations, 2007, 4(5), 6. 
[17] Burnett, J. Managing business crises: From anticipation to implementation [M]. Greenwood Publishing Group.2002.
[18] Curtin T., Hayman D., Husein N. The Crisis Management Handbook. Managing a Crisis: A Practical Guide [M], 2005. 
[19] Massey J. E., & Larsen J. P. Crisis management in real time: How to successfully plan for and respond to a crisis [J]. Journal of Promotion Management, 2006, 12(3-4), 63-97.
[20] Stocker K. P., & Caywood C. The Handbook of strategic public relations & integrated communications [M], 1997.

All published work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Copyright © 2016 - 2031 Clausius Scientific Press Inc. All Rights Reserved.