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Sustainable GDP,Higher Education Development and R&D Expenditure: Evidence from Shandong

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DOI: 10.23977/ICEIPI2020036


Bing Li

Corresponding Author

Bing Li


This study aims at exploring the relationship among Shandong GDP growth, higher education development and R&D expenditure. The conclusion we obtain is a positive correlation among Shandong GDP, higher education development and R&D expenditure. Granger Causality test indicates that Shandong GDP could be explained as Granger causes of higher education development and enterprise’ R&D expenditure increase in Shandong. This paper explains that the fast-higher education development in Shandong contributed to the Shandong GDP growth, and R&D expenditure had a much stronger influence upon Shandong GDP growth. So that public and private investment in higher education and enterprise’ R&D expenditure are all very important factors in order to ensure a sustainable growth of GDP.


Sustainable GDP, higher education development, R&D expenditure

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