Physical Simulation as a Tool to Evaluate the complex Microstructure of Microalloyed Railroad Wheels
DOI: 10.23977/jmpd.2020.040103 | Downloads: 36 | Views: 2007
Solange Tamara da Fonseca 1, Andrei Bavaresco Rezende 1, Clelia Ribeiro de Oliveira 1, Domingos Jose Minucucci 2, Paulo Roberto Mei 1
1 University of Campinas, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Campinas, 13083-860, Brazil
2 DJ Consulting, Botucatu, SP, Brasil
Corresponding AuthorSolange Tamara da Fonseca
Pearlitic microstructures are commonly used in the manufacture of wheels, due to high wear resistance, combined with good ductility and fracture toughness. However, recent studies with bainitic microstructures reveal better performance in wear and rolling contact fatigue. In 2013, AAR (Association of American Rairoads) introduced a new class of microalloyed steel called Class D as acceptable for heavy haul load transport. The new Class D steel must have the same chemical composition as Class C steel with the small addition of alloying elements to provide the required hardness and mechanical properties. The addition of microalloying elements to the manufacturing process can provide different microstructures in the railroad wheels. To identify the microstructures existing in microalloyed steel and compare them with wheel microstructures, physical simulations were conducted using Gleeble equipment. Microstructural characterizations, x-ray diffraction (XRD) and hardness were evaluated in order to isolate the present phases. The hardness map shows the range hardness of each microstructure and it is possible to correlate these with wheel hardness. The pearlitic, ferritic and martensitic microstructures were easily identified by microscopy. The bainitic microstructure was identified by hardness values and microscopy. The austenitic microstructure was identified by XRD. Physical simulation is effective to produce microstructures at different rates and temperatures in a controlled form which is possible to be investigated.
KEYWORDSMicroalloyed railway wheel, niobium, heavy haul
CITE THIS PAPER
Solange Tamara da Fonseca, Andrei Bavaresco Rezende, Clelia Ribeiro de Oliveira, Domingos Jose Minucucci, Paulo Roberto Mei, Physical Simulation as a Tool to Evaluate the complex Microstructure of Microalloyed Railroad Wheels. Journal of Materials, Processing and Design (2020) 4: 20-35. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.23977/jmpd.2020.040103
 Y. Okagata. Desing technologies for railway wheels and future prospects. Nippon steel & Sumitomo metal technical report. p. 26-33, n. 105. 2013.
 K. Wang; R. Pilon. Investigation of heat treating of railroad wheels and its effect on braking using finite element analysis. Griffin Wheel Company.
 N. Zhang, J. W. Zhang, L. T. Lu, M. T. Zhang, D. F. Zeng, Q. P. Song, Q.P.: Wear and friction behavior of austempered ductile iron as railway wheel material. Mater. Des. 89, 815–822 (2016). https
 Q. Li, A. Zhao. Effect of Upper Bainite on wear behaviour of high-speed wheel steel. Tribology Letters, V. 67,
n. 121. p. 1-9, 2019. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11249-019-1239-7.
 D. J. Minicucci, S. T. Fonseca, R. L. V. Boas, et. al. Development of niobium microalloyed steel for railway whell with pearlitic bainitic microstructure. Materials Research, V. 22, n. 6, p. 1-8. 2019. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/1980-5373-MR-2019-0324.
 L. B. Godefroid; L. P. Moreira; et. Al. Effect of chemical composition and microstructure on the fatigue crack growth resistance of pearlitic steels for railroad application. International Journal of Fatigue. V. 120, p. 241-
253. 2019. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijfatigue.2018.10.016
 A. Kumar, S. K. Makineni, A. Dutta, C. Goulas, M. Steenbergen, R. H. Petrov, J. Sietsma. Design of high-strength and damage-resistant carbide-free fine bainitic steels for railway crossing applications. Materials Science & Engineering A, v. 759, p. 210-223, 2019. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.msea.2019.05.043.
 K. Cvetkovski, J. Ahlström, B. Karlsson, B.: Thermal softening of fine pearlitic steel and its effect on the fatigue behavior. Proced. Eng. 2, 541–545, 2010. https ://doi.org/10.1016/j.proen g.2010.03.058.
 D. Zeng, L. Lu, Y. G, et. al. Optimization of strength and toughness of railway wheel steel by alloy design. Materials and Design, V. 92, p.998-1006, 2016. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.matdes.2015.12.096.
 J.P. Liu, Y.Q. Li, Q.Y. Zhou, Y.H. Zhang, Y. Hu, L.B. Shi, W.J. Wang, F.S. Liu, S. B. Zhou, C.H. Tian, New insight into the dry rolling-sliding wear mechanism of carbide-free bainitic and pearlitic steel, Wear p. 432–433, 2019. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.wear.2019.202943.
 W. Solano-Alvarez, E.J. Pickering, H.K.D.H. Bhadeshia, Degradation of nanostructured bainitic steel under rolling contact fatigue, Mater. Sci. Eng., A 617 (2014) 156–164, https://doi.org/10.1016/J.MSEA.2014.08.071.
 O. Hajizad, A. Kumar, Z. Li, R.H. Petrov, J. Sietsma, R. Dollevoet, Influence of microstructure on mechanical properties of bainitic steels in railway applications, Metals (Basel) 9 (2019) 1–19,
 D. Zapata, J. Jaramillo, A. Toro. Rolling contact and adhesive wear of bainitic and pearlitic steels in low load regime. Wear, v. 271, p. 393-399, 2011. ISSN: 00431648, DOI: 10.1016/j.wear.2010.10.009.
 J. P Liu, Y. Q. Li, J. Y. Jin, et. al. Effect of processing techniques on microstructure and mechanical properties of carbide-free bainitic rail steels. Materials Today Communications. 2020. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mtcomm.2020.101531.
 F. C. Robles Hernández, S. Cummings, S. Kalay, et. al. Properties and microstructure of high performance wheels. Wear, V. 271, p.374-381, 2011. doi:10.1016/j.wear.2010.10.017
 C. Lonsdale; S. Dedmon; J. Pitch Recent developments in forged railroad whells for improved performance. Proceedings of Joint Rail Conference, p. 39 – 43. 2005 – Pueblo - CO
 F. Fazeli, B. S. Amirkhiz, C. Scott, M. Arafin, L. Collins. Kinetics and microstructural change of low-carbon bainite due to vanadium microalloying. Mater. Sci. Eng. A 720, 248–256 (2018). https
 C. Qiu; J. Cookson; P. Mutton. The role of microstructure and its stability in performance of wheels in heavy haul service. Journal Mod. Transport. V. 25, n. 4, p. 261-267. 2017. DOI 10.1007/s40534-017-0143-9.
 P. Molyneux-Berry, C. Davis, A. Bevan. The influence of wheel/rail contact conditions on the microstructure and hardness of railway wheels. The Scientific World Journal, V. 2014, p.1-16, 2014.
 H. K. D. H. Bhadeshia: Bainite in steels - 2nd ed., p. 1-460, Institute of Materials, Cambridge- UK (2001).
 S. L. Miller. Effect of microalloying on the strength of high carbon wire steels. These (Ph.D.) - Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Colorado School of Mines, Golden, 2014. 96 p.
 A. Ren; Y. Ji; G. Zhou, Y, Ze-Xim H. Bin, L. Yi; Hot deformation behaviour of V-microalloyed steel. Journal of Iron and Steel Research, International, 2010, ser. 8, vol. 17, pp. 55–60.
 P. H. Shipway; S. J. Wood and A. H. Dent. The hardness and sliding wear behaviour of a bainitic steel. Wear, 1997, vol. 203-204, pp. 196-205.
 K. Han; D. V. Edmonds; G. D. W. Smith. Optimization of mechanical properties of high-carbon pearlitic steel with Si and V additions. Metallurgical and Materials Transactions A, 2001, ser. 6, vol. 32, pp. 1313–1324.
 R. L. Villas Boas; A. P. A. Cunha; S. T. Fonseca; M. H. Silva; P. R. Mei. Proceeding of the National Congress of Mechanical Engineer. Campina Grande, BR, 2010. vol. 1, pp. 1-10.
 S. D. Bakshi; P. H. Shipway; H. K. D. H. Bhadeshia. Three-body abrasive wear of fine pearlite, nanostructured bainite and martensite. Wear, 308, 46-53, 2013. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.wear.2013.09.008.
 S. T. Fonseca; A. Sinatora; A. J. Ramirez; D. J. Minicucci; C. R. Afonso; P. R. Mei: Defect and diffusion forum, 367, 60-67, 2016. doi:10.4028/www.scientific.net/DDF.367.60.
 American Association of Railroads (AAR). M107/208 Section G; 2013.
 D. Rasouli; Sh. Khameneh Asl; A. Akbarzadeh; G. H. Daneshi. Effect of colling rate on the microstructure and mechanical properties of microalloyed forging steel. Journal of Materials Processing Technology, V. 206, p. 92-98, 2008. doi:10.1016/j.jmatprotec.2007.12.006
 J.D. Verhoeven, E. D. Gibson. The divorced eutectoid transformation in steel. Metallurgical & Materials Transactions A, [s.l.], v. 29, p. 1181–1189, 1998.
 A. Ray. Niobium microalloying in rail steels. Materials Science and Technology. V. 33. N. 14. P. 1584-1600. 2017. https://doi.org/10.1080/02670836.2017.1309111
 M. Masoumi, E. A. Echeverri, A. Tschiptschin, et. a.l. Improvement of wear resistance in a pearlitic rail steel via quenching and partitioning processing. Scientific reports, V. 9, p. 1-12. 2019. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-43623-7
 O. P. Modi, N. Deshmukh, D. P. Mondal, A. K. Jha, A. H. Yegneswaran, K. H. Khaira. Effect of interlamellar spacing on the mechanical properties of 0.65 %C steel. Materials Characterization, v. 46, p. 347-352, 2001.
 P.P. Senthil, K. S. Rao; H. K. Nandi, et. al. Influence of niobium microalloying on the microstructure and mechanical properties of high carbon nano bainitic steel. Procedia Structural Integrity, v. 14, p. 729-737, 2019. 10.1016/j.prostr.2019.05.091
 T. Takahashi, W. A. Bassett, M. Hokwang. Isothermal compression of the alloys of iron up to 300 kbar at room temperature: Iron-nickel alloys. Journal of Geophysical Research, B, [s.l.], v. 73, p. 4717–4725, 1968.
 C. Schade, T. Murphy, et. al. Microstructure and mechanical properties of a bainitic PM steels. International Journal of Powder Metallurgy, [s.l.], v. 48, no 3, p. 51–59, 2012. ISSN: 08887462.
 C. Chattopadhyay, S. Sangal, K. Mondal, et al. Improved wear resistance of medium carbon microalloyed bainitic steels. Wear, [s.l.], v. 289, p. 168–179, 2012. ISSN: 0043-1648, DOI: 10.1016/J.WEAR.2012.03.005.
 H. N. El-Din. et al. Structure-properties relationship in trip type bainitic ferrite steel austempered at different temperatures. International Journal of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, [s.l.], v. 12, no 1, p. 1–9, 2017. ISSN: 18230334, DOI: 10.1186/s40712-017-0071-9.
 K. F. Rodrigues, G. M. M. Mourão, G. L. Faria. Kinetics of isothermal phase transformations in premium and stardard rail steels. Steel Research, v. 8, 2020. https://doi.org/10.1002/srin.202000306
 S. Sharma, S. Sangal, K. Mondal. Wear behavior of bainitic rail and wheel steel. Materials Science and Technology, V. 32:4, p. 266-274, 2016. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02670836.2015.1112537
 J. Yin, M. Hillert, A. Borgenstam. Morphology of Upper and Lower Bainite with 0.7 Mass pct C. Metallurgical and Materials Transactions A. v. 48A. p. 4006-4024. 2017. DOI: 10.1007/s11661-017-4208-5
 F. G. Caballero, M. J. Santofimia, C Garcia-Mateo, C. G Andrés. Time-temperature-transformation Diagram within the bainitic temperature range in a medium carbon steel. Materials Transactions, v. 45, n. 12, p. 3272-3281, 2004.
 S. Zajac, V. Schwinn, H. Tacke. Characterization and quantification of complex bainitic microstructures in high and ultra-high strength linepipe steels. Materials Science Forum. V.500-501, p. 388-394, 2005.DOI: 10.4028/www.scientific.net/MSF.500-501.387
 J. Debehets, J. Tacq, A. Favache, et. al. Analysis of the variation in nanohardness of pearlitic steel: Influence of the interplay between ferrite crystal orientation and cementite morphology. Materials Science & Engineering A, V. 616, p. 99-106, 2014. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.msea.2014.08.019.
 H. Lan, L. Du, N, Zhou, et. al. Effect of austempering route on microstructural characterization of nanobainitic steel. Acta Metallurgica Sinica. V. 27, n. 1, p. 19-26, 2014. DOI 10.1007/s40195-013-0006-2.
 C. Liu, R. Ren, D. Zhao, C. Chen, An EBSD investigation on the evolution of the surface microstructure of D2 wheel steel during rolling contact fatigue, Tribology Letter. 68 (2020) 11, https://doi.org/10.1007/s11249-020-1277-1
 Y. Hu, L. Zhou, H.H. Ding, R. Lewis, Q.Y. Liu, J. Guo, W.J. Wang. Microstructure evolution of railway pearlitic wheel steels under rolling-sliding contact loading, Tribology International, 106685, 2020,
 J. Kalousek, D. M. Fegredo, E. E. Laufer. The wear resistance and worn metallografy of pearlite, bainite and tempered martensite rail steel microstructures of high hardness. Journal on the Science and Technology of friction lubrication and wear, v. 105, p. 199-222, 1985. DOI: 10.1016/0043-1648(85)90068-7.